Highlighting the Importance of Intersectionality in the Gender Pay Gap

The gender pay gap is again receiving much-needed publicity in recent years as a topic of debate between US presidential hopefuls for 2016 and information uncovered from Sony’s email hack this time last year. While the phrase “women get paid 78% of what men are paid” is touted frequently in discussion, the 78% figure is static in dimension. Do all women get paid 78% of what men are paid, or is it just a subset of the female working population?

There is a lot more to the 78% figure than meets the eye, and the intersection of race and gender is important to telling the fuller story behind the 78%, and the wider issue of gender parity in earnings.

Using DASIL’s Pay by Race & Gender visualization, we can see that race plays a significant role in the pay of a full-time working woman and reveals the nuances to the widely-cited 78% figure. Asian women working full-time in the US are (and have been) the subset of women getting paid closest to what all men are getting paid throughout history, at 86% that of men in 2013. However, Asian women were only paid 75% that of Asian men in 2013. On the other end of the spectrum, Hispanic women were disproportionately getting paid only 60% of men’s wages in 2013, the lowest of all recorded races. Hispanic males also earn the lowest in comparison to all men, at 64% of what all men earn (not shown) in 2013. As the graph indicates, the asymmetric trends for Hispanic and Black women have remained relatively constant for the past twenty years.

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With regard to part-time labor, however, there is virtually complete gender parity in 2013 when focusing on average figures, with “all women” receiving 99% of what a man earns. When filtering by race, part-time working White and Asian women even get paid more than that of average men; white women receive 106% of what a man earns, and Asian women 101% in 2013. However, racial disparity still persists: both Black and Hispanic women in part-time labor received 85% of what part-time men were paid in 2013, and the closest Black and Hispanic women have been in achieving pay parity with the average man was in 1994.

As this infographic suggests, one reason for full-time and part-time pay disparity can be due to industry: black women are more likely to work in less-lucrative jobs (e.g. service, healthcare) than high-lucrative jobs (e.g. STEM, management). Relatedly, education can be a contributing factor: Hispanic and Black women are less likely to graduate than whites. Yet, even if women of color have the same education levels as their white peers, they are still paid less; there is more contributing to pay disparity than the educational attainment of women of color.

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While there is clear cause for more work to be done in bridging the pay gap between men and women, recognizing the multiple dimensions of the issue will be key to creating meaningful and effective policy changes.

Explore more trends with our Pay by Gender and Race visualization here.

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Egypt Trade Chord Graph

The data are information about exports and imports into Egypt.

  • Click on an exterior ring to expand.
  • Hover to get information about specific chord segments.

The data from this can be seen here. If you would like to generate your own Chord Graph using our code, it can be found here and requires your data to be in a JSON. If you find yourself having any issues with the code or need assistance, please email [barattat17] at grinnell dot edu, or comment on our GitHub repository here.

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Exploring Racial Disparities in New York City’s Stop-and-Frisk Policies

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A comparison of the two maps above yields a surprising conclusion: African-Americans are much less likely to be arrested in areas with higher African-American populations!

One of the best examples of the use of statistics in policy research is in the controversy about New York City’s Stop-Question-and-Frisk policies, which give police officers the right to stop, search, or arrest any suspicious person with reasonable grounds for action. These policies were an effort to reduce crime rates, under the philosophy that stopping suspicious persons will prevent smaller crimes from escalating into more violent ones. In recent years, the NYPD had been under fire for alleged racial discrimination in their stops. Research on approximately 175,000 stops from January 1998 through March 1999, for example, showed that Blacks and Hispanics represented 51% and 33% of the stops, while only representing 26% and 24% of the New York City population respectively. The NYPD defended their practices, saying that since crimes mostly happen in black neighborhoods, it is natural that more black people would be found suspicious of crimes.

Using the stop-and-frisk dataset provided by the NYPD and 2010 census data, numbers were compiled into an interactive heat map of arrests directly related to the stop-and-frisk policy in New York City, as an aid to visualizing this disparity in race.

For each precinct, the visualization allows you to compare the racial make-up of the population with the proportion of arrests by race. For instance, this shows that in Precinct 104 while less than 2 % of the population in this precinct is African-Americans, over 15% of the arrests were of African-Americans.

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Evidence of racial disparity is clear.  African-Americans are consistently overrepresented in arrests compared to the population in each precinct.

The exception to this trend which was alluded to at the beginning of the post:  in areas with high African-American populations, the disparity disappears, and even reverses in a few precincts! Thus African-Americans are much less likely to be arrested in neighborhoods with high African-American populations.

Use this visualization to explore the trends in arrests due to the stop-and-frisk policies in New York:

Another visualization on stops and arrests in New York City can be accessed here. You can also go here for more information on these data visualizations.  These visualizations were created as part of a Grinnell College Mentored Advanced Project with Ying Long and Zachary Segall under the direction of Shonda Kuiper.

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NYC Stop and Frisk Interactive Heat Map

Explore the trends in arrests due to the stop-and-frisk policies in New York with our interactive heat map.

Map by Krit Petrachaianan ’17. Data from the NYPD Stop, Question, and Frisk database and the NYC Department of City Planning.

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Data Across the Curriculum: Helping the Local and the International with Consulting Research

Students in Monty Roper’s Anthropology and Global Development Studies classes gain practical experience in fieldwork, data analysis, and ways to deal effectively with clients when they act as consultants for both local organizations in Grinnell and internationally in an agricultural village in Costa Rica.  The clients they work with get free research which is presented to them both in the form of an oral consultation and in a written report.

 


From left: Roni Finkelstein ’15, Ellen Pinnette ’15, Liberty Britton ’14, Rosalie Curtain ’15, Emily Nucaro ’14, Ben Mothershead ’15, Zhaoyi Chen ’14, and M’tep Blount ’15, listen to Juan Carlos Bejarono explain the palm growing process.

 

For a Global Development Studies/Anthropology seminar, students prepare research plans during the first half of the semester and then travel to a rural agricultural community in Costa Rica to spend the two weeks of spring break collecting data which is then analyzed and written up during the remaining weeks of the semester.  The first year of the project, the class conducted an in-depth community development diagnostic.  Since then, they have investigated a variety of rural development issues, mainly focusing on tourism, women’s empowerment, and organizational issues and agricultural projects of the town’s two cooperatives.

 

From left: Chloe Griffin ’14 and Samanea Karrfalt ’14 present their research on “Professional Black Hair Care in Grinnell, IA”


From left: Irene Bruce ’15 and Matt Miller ’15 present their research and answer questions.

 

In Grinnell, Monty works with Susan Sanning, Director of Service and Social Innovation, to identify and explore possible collaborations with community partners who have research needs.  In the past, for example, Mid-Iowa Community Action (MICA) was interested in knowing why families dropped out of their Family Development and Self-Sufficiency Program (FaDSS) before their benefits were fully used, Drake Library was interested in what kinds of programming would best serve the town’s “tween” population, and a hair salon wanted to find out whether it was economically viable to invest in special hair care products and services for black customers.

Ideally positive change occurs because of the class’ research.  Grinnell students, Dillon Fischer ’13 and Sarah Burnell ’13, interviewed graduates of Grinnell High School who had gone on to attend college about their preparedness for college academics. According to the GHS Principal, these findings led the school to revise its minimum writing standards, making them more challenging. The local after school youth program, Galaxy, requested a study on donor perceptions and desires and subsequently used the results to write a successful grant proposal for support. This year’s class is planning to do more follow-ups on previous projects to ascertain longer term results.

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