5 Must-See TED Talks on Data Visualization!

Data visualization is crucial in understanding data and identifying hidden connections that matter. Below are 5 TED talks on data visualization you don’t want to miss!

1. Hans Rosling: The best stats you’ve ever seen

Han Rosling, cofounder of the Gapminder Foundation, developed the Trendalyzer software that converts international statistics – such as life expectancy and child mortality rate – into innovative, interactive graphics. The statistics guru is a strong advocate for public access to data and the development of tools that make it accessible and usable for all.  In this classic talk, Rosling highlights the importance of data in debunking myths about the gap between developed countries and the so-called “developing world.” Even though the talk was filmed 10 years ago, it still carries very important and relevant messages.

Watch more of Rosling’s TED talks here.

2. David McCandless: The beauty of data visualization

In this visually captivating talk, data journalist David McCandless suggests that data visualization is a quick solution to our current problem of information overload. Visualizations allow us to see the hidden patterns, identify connections that matter, and tell stories with data. To McCandless, “even when the information is terrible, the visual can be quite beautiful”; this is a controversial claim, however, since the main goal of data visualization should be to communicate information effectively through graphical means.

3. Dave Troy: Social maps that reveal a city’s intersections – and separations

A serial entrepreneur and data-viz fan, Dave Troy takes a people-focused approach to data visualization. Troy has been mapping tweets among city dwellers, revealing what connects communities and what separates them – above and beyond demographic factors such as race or ethnicity. He compares a city to a “giant high school cafeteria” and suggests that we see “how everybody arranged themselves in a seating chart”, arguing that “maybe it’s time to shake up the seating chart a little bit” to reshape our cities.

4. Eric Berlow & Sean Gourley: Mapping ideas worth spreading

An ecologist and a physicist, Eric Berlow and Sean Gourley, collaborate in this presentation to create stunning 3D visualizations demonstrating the interconnectedness of ideas. Taking 4,000 TEDx talks from 147 countries representing 50 languages, they explore their “meme-omes” – the mathematical structures that underlie the ideas behind these talks – and discover similarities between seemingly unconnected topics. Berlow and Gourley also broke down complex themes into multiple more specific ones, seeing what topics resonated with viewers and what kind of audience looked at what topic. To Gourley, mapping ideas in this way will help us “to see what’s being said, to see what’s not being said, and to be a little bit more human and, hopefully, a little smarter.”

5. Manuel Lima: A visual history of human knowledge

Founder of VisualComplexity.com Manuel Lima, described by Wired Magazine as “the man who turns data into art,” explains the visual metaphor shift from the tree to the network as “a new lens to understand the world around us.” Lima argues that the tree – an important tool to map everything from genealogy to systems of law to Darwin’s “Tree of Life” – is being replaced by a new metaphor – the network. Rigid structures are evolving into interdependent systems, and networks emerge to embody the nonlinearity, decentralization, interconnectedness, and multiplicity of ideas and knowledge. The shift in visual metaphor also represents a new way of thinking – one that is critical for us to solve many complex problems we are facing.

Enter your e-mail address to receive notifications of new blog posts.
You can leave the list at any time. Removal instructions are included in each message.

Powered by WPNewsman

Please like & share:

Investigating Police Brutality in Los Angeles

Excessive use of force by law enforcement is by no means a novel phenomenon in the United States. However, with high-profile cases like Michael Brown, Eric Garner, and most recently Greg Gunn, fueling national movements such as #BlackLivesMatter, race-related incidences of police brutality are receiving worldwide media attention.

I investigated geographic trends in reported police brutality, using Los Angeles County at the census tract level and data from The Guardian’s project “The Counted,” a comprehensive dataset that records all people killed by police and other law enforcement agencies in the US, for the year 2015.

To measure the effect of location on incidences of police brutality, I conducted a hot spot analysis, which identifies statistically significant spatial clusters of high (hot spots) and low police brutality (cold spots). Essentially, the hot spots/cold spots indicate whether observed spatial clustering of police brutality events is more pronounced than if the values were randomly distributed. We specified the spatial relationship for the analysis as Contiguity Edges, meaning that census tracts that share a boundary or overlap with a census tract that contains a police brutality event will be weighted more that those that don’t in the analysis.

Below is a map depicting the results of the hot spot analysis.

policebrutalityla

The hot spots depicted in the map reveal the relationship between location and the occurrence of police brutality. The neighborhoods enveloped in hot spots are those with an abnormally high number of police brutality events, indicating that these areas may be disproportionately affected by excessive use of force by law enforcement.

Looking demographically at both the incidences themselves and these hot spot neighborhoods can shed some light on why these areas have abnormally high police brutality. Right off the bat, the number of blue and green dots (Hispanic/Latino and black victims, respectively), dominates the map. Breaking down by race, there were 30 victims of Hispanic/Latino descent, 11 black, 4 Asian/Pacific Islander, 7 white, and 1 Arab-American. In addition, most of the incidences with blacks as victims happen in LA neighborhoods that have a large population of blacks, such as Willowbrook and Westmont. The same trend also appears when focusing on Hispanic/Latino victims: most Hispanic/Latino victims died in neighborhoods with large populations of Hispanics/Latinos, such as Los Angeles proper and Eastern LA County (Baldwin Park, Irwindale, West Covina).

Enter your e-mail address to receive notifications of new blog posts.
You can leave the list at any time. Removal instructions are included in each message.

Powered by WPNewsman


 

Please like & share:

The Mass Shooting Epidemic in the United States

An examination of Stanford University’s Mass Shootings of America (MSA) dataset shows why shootings have been making the headlines in the U.S. and gun violence has become a big issue addressed in the campaigns of presidential hopefuls. Stanford MSA defines a mass shooting as “3 or more shooting victims (not necessarily fatalities), not including the shooter. The shooting must not be identifiably gang or drug related” (Stanford Mass Shootings in America, courtesy of the Stanford Geospatial Center and Stanford Libraries).

totalfatalitiessingleline

The dramatic change in the number of mass shootings in the past two years is readily apparent. There were 121 mass shooting events from 1966 to 2009, but 116 just in the past 5 years. 2015 alone had 65 separate instances of mass shootings. In terms of total number of fatalities, the past 7 years are noticeably thicker than earlier years. Even in years with low numbers of mass shootings, such as 1991 which only had 5 incidences, there were a large number of fatalities (47).

mapforposter2

placetypeposter2

The Southern states had the largest numbers of mass shootings in 2015. Florida led with 6. Even though Texas had fewer mass shootings (4), the state sustained the most fatalities, 20. North Dakota and New Hampshire are the only 2 states that have not experienced any mass shootings in the 49 year time period covered by the data (not shown). In 2015 39 mass shootings occurred in residential homes & neighborhoods, while 21 happened in public places. Back in the late 90s, schools were the primary target of mass shooters, with 3 incidents in 1997 and 1999, each.

motivegraph

Most of the mass shootings in the past 8 years have stemmed from a variant of an altercation, be it domestic, legal, financial, or school-related. Of course it can always be argued that all mass shooters have mental health issues, but contrary to popular belief, according to these classifications,  shooters’ mental health issues as a direct motive for shootings  has not increased in recent years, with only one incident in 2015 attributed to mental health issues. Perhaps what’s most troubling is the high number of cases where a motive can’t be identified, 23 in 2015, suggesting the need for further, more comprehensive study into the underlying causes of these mass shootings.

Many pundits largely attribute the US-specific phenomenon to things to lax gun policy. However, any progress to change gun laws, even to fund research into the causes of gun violence, has been (and continues to be) stymied by the gun lobby, led by the National Rifle Association (NRA). Re-examining the nation’s access to guns is imperative, and those in Congress who are funded by the gun lobby need to be open to that re-examination. While the data available is informative, unfettered research is integral to truly understanding the nature of gun violence and to finding effective policy solutions.

Enter your e-mail address to receive notifications of new blog posts.
You can leave the list at any time. Removal instructions are included in each message.

Powered by WPNewsman

Please like & share:

Data Across the Curriculum: The Explanatory Power of Data in Global Development & Geography

The field of geography is split into two camps: critical scholars, who are skeptical of data because they believe it silences certain voices within society and fails to explain process and context, and empirical scholars, who incorporate data to create empirical models that explain geographic concepts and trends.  Leif  Brottem, Assistant Professor of Political Science with a PhD in Geography, is a firm believer in the importance of both critical and empirical approaches.  Data analysis can compensate for and expand upon the limits of text and qualitative evidence. His focus on data analysis as a tool that illustrates narrative is evident in the work of each of his three classes, Introduction to Global Development Studies (GDS), Introduction to Geographical Analysis and Cartography, and Climate Change, Development, and Environment.

In his Introduction to Global Development Studies, for instance, Brottem utilizes infographics & charts to explain basic concepts, and utilizes data tools such as GapMinder to illustrate change over time and regional differences pertaining to a variety of development indicators. His students also complete two data analysis exercises as a part of the class: one exercise asks students to study the relationship between economic development and social development indicators, and the second has students explore different aspects of population dynamics such as carrying capacity, limits to growth and the determinants of population growth.

In Brottem’s Introduction to Geographical Analysis and Cartography course, students learn both the basic critical perspectives on how to evaluate maps and understand their overt and covert messages and practical techniques for making maps using Geographical Information Systems software.  Students complete in-class exercises and take-home labs that require creating data and using data to solve problems.

LEIF2

Finally, in Climate Change, Development, and Environment, Brottem utilizes data analysis in the form of topic-modeling: students investigate textual trends in various sources, from tweets to scholarly articles, using the MALLET topic model package. In addition, his students also work with Nvivo to conduct further qualitative analysis, and GIS to visualize spatial trends.

Working with data builds data literacy, a marketable and necessary skill in the real world that Brottem says isn’t typically developed in a liberal arts settings. Building data literacy is especially important in his introductory classes, because he has students who wouldn’t otherwise be exposed to data, and aims to get them comfortable with using data and reduce their fears of data, numbers, and data analysis. Brottem strongly believes that data is a powerful explanatory tool that helps students think of different ways to look at the world and their studies, beyond theory.

Enter your e-mail address to receive notifications of new blog posts.
You can leave the list at any time. Removal instructions are included in each message.

Powered by WPNewsman

Please like & share:

Journalists and Maps: The Need for Teaching Quantitative Literacy to Everyone

 

In recent years programs like ArcGIS and Tableau have made it very easy to produce maps. Journalists have responded by richly illustrating their articles with quantitative data displayed as maps.  Maps are both attractive and easier to explore visually than the same data provided in tabular form, so in many ways they are ideal illustrations. For the average reader information transmitted as quantitative data appears authoritative and these maps are no exception.  On the surface they seem real and informative. Unfortunately, just as with any data-driven information maps can inadvertently be misleading.

In a recent example, NBC news illustrates an article about the Supreme Court consideration of a Texas law that would force the closure of a high percentage of existing abortion clinics across the country were similar laws to be enforced or enacted more broadly with a map of the U.S. showing the number of abortions per state in 2012, using data from the CDC (Center for Disease Control).

A quick perusal of this map seems to show why Texas is so concerned about abortions.  After all it is one of the states with the most abortions.  After a moment’s examination, the viewer might (or might not) note that the states with the highest populations also seem to have the largest numbers of abortions.

AbortionNumber

Thus, this map really tells us little about which states have the biggest problem with abortions.  Some kind of standardization by population is needed.  One option would be to just use population size. Since the number of women of women who might potentially become pregnant and secure an abortion (usually defined as the number of women between 15 and 44) does not necessarily vary by state in direct proportion to the population size, this statistic may be a better measure for standardization than simple population size.  In terms of the number of abortions per 1,000 women ages 15-44 Florida and New York have high rates of abortions, but Texas no longer looks unusual.

AbortionRate

But this still might not be the most revealing measure to use, since there is state to state variation in the birth rate.  In 2012 the average birth rate for the U.S. was 1.88, but Texas had a birth rate of 2.08.  The highest birth rate in the 50 states was 2.37 in Utah and the lowest 1.59 in Rhode Island. An option that takes into account the differential birth rates is to examine the ratio between the number of births and the number of abortions.  Using this measure, New York remains very high, but due to its relatively high birth rate Texas is even lower.

Abortion Ratio

The CDC provides all of these statistics, but the journalist chose the least revealing of the possible measures to display.  Journalists are generally both well-educated and, we assume, well-meaning.  Why not pick a better measure to map when it would have been equally easy to do so?  I suspect that the answer lies firmly in the laps of educators like myself.  While we prioritize skills like writing and speaking well, we do not mandate that all students graduate statistically or even quantitatively literate, but we should.

Enter your e-mail address to receive notifications of new blog posts.
You can leave the list at any time. Removal instructions are included in each message.

Powered by WPNewsman

Please like & share: