Portraits of Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton

Clinton vs. Trump: Who‘s Winning on Twitter?

An analysis of 3000 tweets sent by the Clinton and Trump campaigns between March and early September this year (2016) reveals stark differences in both content and social media exposure.

Up to September 2016, Trump boasted a number of 11.6 million Twitter followers compared to 8.86 million for Clinton. The average number of retweet for Trumps’ Twitter posts (5493) is also roughly twice as high as that from Clinton’s (2556).

Interestingly, as of July 2016, the number of daily tweets from Clinton’s account doubled to roughly 30 tweets daily while that same figure from Trump hovered around 12 tweets a day. These statistics suggest that Trump is gaining more engagement from Twitters’ users, even though Clinton is also fighting hard to gain presence in social media.

Tweets’ content analysisWord clouds featuring 100 most frequent words in Hillary Clinton's and Donald Trump's tweets

Clearly, both candidates refer to each other consistently in their tweets. Clinton mentions Trump primarily in terms of his disrespect for generals, immigration policies, tax breaks for the wealthy and failure to release tax returns. Popular themes in Clinton’s tweets are “families”, “women” and “jobs”. She tends to use words that suggests the togetherness of the American community as well as a positive attitude towards good changes for America.

Similarly, Trump made many references to Clinton through his posts, although he tended to use her first name, rather than her last. The word “Hillary” or the phrase “Crooked Hillary” was mentioned 547 times. Common topics that Trump addresses include controversy around Clinton’s emails, media manipulation, and criticism towards Clinton’s policies on foreign affairs and immigration.

Interestingly, Trump refers to Democrats, like Bernie Sanders and Barack Obama, as well as Republicans like his former opponents Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio. Unlike Clinton, Trump tends to make a greater use of words with negative tones, which sketch a pretty bleak portrait of the  U.S. , perhaps to make the case for the need to, as his campaign slogan phrases it, “Make American great again”.

Who do they talk to? 

In her tweets, Clinton frequently mentions @realDonaldTrump, but Trump does not seem to tag Clinton or mention her Twitter handle even though his Tweets mention her name consistently. Clinton seems to employ the strategy of engaging with and directly mentioning her opponent’s Twitter account, whereas Trump chooses to simply ignore his rival. It remains to be seen which strategy is more effective in this presidential election.Most common mentions in Trump's tweetsPie chart featuring the most common mentions in Clinton's tweetsWhile Clinton tends to mention Twitter users who are figures of her political party – @BillClinton for example, Trump referred to various right-wing media shows and channels – such as @FoxNews and @MegynKelly. Interestingly, Trump’s posts with mentions have on average 4 times the number of retweets as those without mention. Clinton’s posts with mentions have a 3 times higher number of retweets. Thus, mentions appear to increase the likelihood of retweets. Given that the average number of retweets for Trump’s posts is greater than that of Clinton’s, it seems like Trump’s way of using mentions may help him gain more attention from Twitter’s user community, although there may be other explanations as well.

Enter your e-mail address to receive notifications of new blog posts.
You can leave the list at any time. Removal instructions are included in each message.

Powered by WPNewsman

Please like & share:

Meet Yujing Cao, DASIL’s new data scientist!

This year, DASIL welcomes a new member of our staff, Yujing Cao, who will be serving as the new data scientist. In her position at DASIL, Yujing will bring her expertise in data analysis and visualization to further expand DASIL’s capability to help students and faculty members integrate data analysis into research and classroom work.  In today’s big data era, enormous quantities of data are available, and Yujing will help Grinnell students and faculty explore them.

Yujing Cao is excited about joining DASIL and bringing a new level of data analysis to faculty research and teaching!

Yujing Cao is excited about joining DASIL and bringing a new level of data analysis to faculty research and teaching!

Originally from China, Yujing got her bachelor degree in Statistics from Anhui University. Her passion for data science led her to a PhD program in Statistics at the University of Texas at Dallas, where she obtained her degree in 2016. Her research was on graphical modeling of biological pathways in genomic studies. She is also interested in network analysis, machine learning, and trying different tools for data visualization. In her spare time, she enjoys reading, hiking, and exercising.

Yujing was excited about the position at Grinnell because of her strong interests in teaching and in data visualization. As she puts it:

“I wanted to look for a position which provides opportunities to create interesting data visualizations along with other data analysis work. I love using graphs to tell stories behind different data sets.

Working environment is another factor that led to my decision to come to Grinnell.  I strongly resonate with the core values of a liberal arts education. At Grinnell College, I can work in an academic environment helping faculty and students while promoting the use of data in research and learning.

Yujing also discusses a number of skills crucial to succeed in the field of data science. Data science is an interdisciplinary field requiring knowledge from mathematics, statistics, data mining and machine learning. Statistical knowledge and knowledge from other fields can help form good questions and seek direction, while programming skills (e.g. joining data sets and visualizing data) are needed for implementing our ideas. To be a good data scientist, you should possess strong programming and analytical skills.”

According to Yujing, “One of the most important qualities for any data scientist is curiosity. Curiosity encourages us to dig in and make interesting discoveries about data. Also, good communication skills can make a great data scientist. You should be able to clearly articulate your results and the implications of your findings to others, including other data scientists and people who don’t share a similar background.”

Her tip for students interested in a career in data science is to keep an open mind to learn from different disciplines and sharpen your programming skills.  In addition, a student who is interested in being a data scientist should take advantage of any opportunities to get hands-on projects that use real data.”

Faculty or students interested in meeting with Yujing should drop by DASIL(ARH 130) or her office (Goodnow 103) or contact her via email at caoyujin@grinnell.edu for an appointment.

Enter your e-mail address to receive notifications of new blog posts.
You can leave the list at any time. Removal instructions are included in each message.

Powered by WPNewsman

Please like & share:

Examining the American Public Through “We the People”

If the titles of petitions submitted to President Obama on the “We the People” website are any indication, Americans care deeply about current political issues and want the government to grant them a broader range of rights and services, although stopping current actions is another common theme.

wordfreq100kcap

We the People,” a portion of the White House web presence launched in 2011 allows citizens to draft petitions for the President and garner electronic “signatures” to support their chosen issue. Petition topics range from amusing to serious. The platform hosts petitions to “Secure resources and funding, and begin construction of a Death Star by 2016” and to “Deport Justin Bieber and Revoke his green card” as well as petitions to “File charges against the 47 U.S. Senators in violation of The Logan Act in attempting to undermine a nuclear agreement.” DASIL’s data explorer allows searches of these petitions based on keyword, subject category, or number of signatures.

Since 2011, 4,615 petitions with over 150 signatures in 30 days, the threshold for being included on the site, have been archived. Petitions with 100,000+ signatures merit a White House response. The original threshold was 5,000, but this was quickly raised to 25,000 in 2011 and then to 100,000 in 2013.  “We the People” has archived 247 petitions with over 25,000 signatures, amounting to about one a week crossing the 25,000 signature threshold since 2011! Thus while increasing the threshold for an official response has significantly reduced the need for the responses, there are still a significant number of petitions that require attention.

paigecap1

The word cloud above reveals an interesting characteristic of the most popular “We the People” petitions. While frivolous issues do appear on the forum, the most supported and reoccurring issues are serious: governance, health, security, and services, rather than less wide-reaching political concerns.

paigecap2

Glancing through the White House responses to petitions, it is clear that Americans place perhaps too much faith in their government’s ability to fulfill their requests.  The federal government does not keep a formal list of “hate groups” and therefore cannot declare that Westboro Baptist is one, even though the petition to do so has the most signatures of all “We the People” petitions. Neither can they deport Justin Bieber.

However, petition responses also make confirm that petitions do serve a purpose. Recent responses contain information from the FDA about GMOs, details on the Iran nuclear deal, and a detailed explanation of the debate on body cameras for law enforcement.  These responses indicate when the government is already working to pursue its citizens’ interests, and, occasionally, report that the issue has been forwarded to the appropriate department for consideration. Therefore, though petitions occasionally overestimate the government’s scope of action, petition responses grant concerned citizens access to clear information about their greatest concerns.

Enter your e-mail address to receive notifications of new blog posts.
You can leave the list at any time. Removal instructions are included in each message.

Powered by WPNewsman

Please like & share:

Investigating the Spatial & Temporal Trends of Declaring a Major

The start of the school year is a time many students start putting thought into what disciplines to study for the remainder of their collegiate careers. Many on-campus resources such as the Center for Careers, Life, and Service are already in the full swing of advising students, such as the “Choosing Your Major” info session on Sept 21st from noon to 1 in the Joe Rosenfield Center. Here in DASIL, we thought it would be fun to investigate what Grinnell College students majored in over the years to illustrate the transformation of student academic patterns. Using data from the Office of Academic Affairs, Office of the Registrar, and the Office of Analytic Support and Institutional Research, we created two interactive graphics. One is a line graph presenting the number of declared majors over time from 1991 to 2015 by major and rank compared to other majors. Our second visualization is a geographic map with two layers: the US layer breaks down the proportion of students by state and major from 1985 to 2015, while the world layer illustrates the proportion of international students by country and major.

Click on the Details button below to find out more about the data for each visualization.

For the map:

    • The Contents button(contentsbutton) will display all layers. Unclick the checkbox next to the layer name to hide the layer. To view the legend, click on the “Show Legend” icon (contentsbutton) below the layer name.
    • To examine other majors, find the “Change Style” button (contentsbutton) below the layer name you wish to view, then select the desired major from the “Choose an attribute to show” drop-down menu.  You may alter the map with colors, symbols or size.
    • Click on an individual country or US state to see available data on all majors.

For the line graph:

  • Choose your major(s) of interest in the “Select a major to display” field.
  • Hover over each point to display information on a major’s rank by class year and the number of students declared. Hover over a line to view the path of a major over time.


 

 

The Biology major holds the record for most students declared within this time frame, at 53 students for the Class of 1995. Since its creation, the number of students who major in Biological Chemistry increased leaps and bounds, ranking as the second most-declared major in the Class of 2015, tied with Psychology. Economics shows a general increasing trend over time, while majors like English and Sociology show erratic variability throughout.

American Studies majors appears to be representing the South and Southwest regions of the US, while Sociology is prominent in states located in the Midwest and, similarly, the South. A large proportion of students hailing from California study the hard sciences, especially Biological Chemistry. Surprisingly, there is a significant proportion of biology majors represented in most of the states.

Scoping out, the social sciences and hard sciences are popular disciplines among international students. Economics, Biological Chemistry, and Math are popular, especially in countries like China and India. Several humanities majors are not well-represented by international students, such as Theatre and Gender, Women, & Sexuality Studies.

Enter your e-mail address to receive notifications of new blog posts.
You can leave the list at any time. Removal instructions are included in each message.

Powered by WPNewsman

Please like & share: